nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron

In-situ chemical reduction is performed using an extremely tiny, nanoscale suspension of elemental iron (Fe0 – zero-valent); this is the origin of the abbreviated English (international) name of the process: nZVI (nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron). The nanoscale range of particles (1-5 nm) is demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy images and the particle size distribution (see below).

Due to the nano-size of particles, the elemental iron particles move freely, practically together with water molecules in the pore space allowing for in-situ delivery.

nZVI TEM (transmission electron microscopy)

nZVI TEM (transmission electron microscopy) image


1 – 1,5 nm 9%
1,5 -2 nm 13%
2 – 2,5 nm 20%
2,5 – 3 nm 40%
3 – 3,5 nm 12%
3,5 – 4 nm 3%
4 – 4,5 nm 3%


nZVI is produced from the reduction of inorganic Fe compounds

Being a powerful chemical reaction and since the compounds to be used need to be dissolved from crystal sate on site, nZVI production is performed in a mobile production equipment consisted of stainless pressure reaction vessels, hydraulic (non-sparking) mixing engines, and electronically regulated decanting and supply system.

The production equipment is mobile, i.e. mounted on a heavy trailer, equipped with its own energy supply (three-phase generator) if required.

There is a minimal volume of hydrogen gas formation during production therefore, the reaction is conducted under nitrogen cushion in the tanks. Tanks are equipped with a safety relief system.

Mobile nZVI production equipment

Mobile nZVI production equipment

Even though the operation can be automated, the operation of the equipment requires high preparedness and practice and can only be handled by qualified personnel trained by Auro-Science Ltd.


A touch screen user interface is used to control the nZVI production process.

Control system touch screen user interface (OP1)